The white paper titled Self-Protecting Digital Content resulted from Cryptography Research’s multi-year Content Security Research Initiative to develop new approaches for combating piracy on open-format systems. Published in 2003, the paper describes how risk management techniques can be applied to control piracy in situations where perfect security is impractical. A key architectural result is to show how content can be integrated with security code, shifting control and responsibility for security from players to the content itself. Engineers at Cryptography Research developed SPDC’s concepts into technical specifications and working prototypes. The SPDC approach was validated in a 3rd party evaluation of the technology.