Transport Glossary

AMS

Asset Management System. Part of the back office data processing system (HOPS). The Asset Management System is responsible for the data modules within individual ticketing machines or Barriers (ISAMs)

Rail Delivery Group (formally ATOC)

Association of Train Operating Companies a coordinating body which brings together all train companies operating in Britain.

Authentication

When a card or terminal verifies that one another is genuine.

Biometrics

The technique of studying physical characteristics of a person such as fingerprints, hand geometry eye structure or voice pattern.

Card reader

An electronic device that reads the information stored on smart cards. They can be contact card readers, where the smart card is inserted for the chip to be read on contact.

Contactless card readers where the card can be read without making physical contact with the reader and dual readers are also available, which can read both types of smart card.

Closed loop payment

Also known as private label payment, where payments can be made to the specified provider, an ideal solution for brand loyalty cards.

CMS

Card Management System, software that allows customers to issue and manage smart cards

Contact Smart Card

A smart card that connects to the reading device through direct physical contact between the smart card chip and smart card reader, one example is chip and pin bank cards.

Contactless Smart Card

Smart cards that require no physical contact between the card and the physical point-of-sale (POS) terminal. Where you tap the card on a terminal in the way you would an Oyster card at a gate.

Dual Interface Card

A smart card that has a single smart card chip with two interfaces – a contact and a contactless interface – using shared memory and chip resources. Particularly useful when integrating legacy systems with new ones.

E Passport

A travel document that contains an integrated circuit chip based on international standard ISO/IEC 14443 and that can securely store and communicate the ePassport holder’s personal information to authorized reading devices.

E Purse

Type of smart card which, with an embedded microchip, provides multiple options, such as debit card or credit card type payments.

EMV

Euro pay MasterCard Visa. Specifications developed by Europay, MasterCard and Visa that define a set of requirements to ensure interoperability between payment chip cards and terminals.

Encryption

The process of converting information into code that can only be read by a reader with the key to encrypt it, smart cards provide a robust set of encryption capabilities including key generation, secure key storage and digital signing.

ENCTS

English National Concessionary Travel Scheme, the provision of free bus travel to residents over 60 by local authorities throughout England.

Epurse or electronic purse

A payment card that stores prepaid monetary value on a smart card.

Form factor

The physical device that holds the smart card technology, these could be plastic cards, wristbands, key fobs or mobile phones.

Interoperability

The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.

ISAM

ITSO Secure Application Module, this supports the end-to-end security and business rules.

ISAS (See also RTDS)

ISAS is an acronym for ITSO Sam Array System. Rambus ITSO Part 11 solution (branded RTD)  incorporates an ITSO SAM Array System in the ‘back office’. Traditionally ISAMs are stored locally in kiosks or ticket vending machines and this means that 1 ISAM is required for every physical machine. Ecebs invented Part 11 to  create a virtual bank of ISAMs that could be used efficiently by connecting over the internet to existing terminal estates and thus reducing the timescales and costs of expanding smart ticketing deployments. Ecebs invented the unique (patent pending) SAM management software which manages the ITSO SAM Array System and provides the most efficient method of managing transactions through remote ISAMs.

ISMS

The ITSO Security Management Service works in conjunction with the ISAM to provide the necessary cryptographic keys and security covering all elements of an ITSO environment.

ITSO

ITSO is a government-backed non-profit organisation which sets a common technical specification that means transport operators throughout Britain can link up so passengers only have to use one secure payment ‘smart’ card no matter what bus, train or route they are using and that same card can be developed for multiple uses, including council services such as leisure centres or libraries.

ITSO Remote Post

See Remote Ticket Download (RTD).

Java

Programming Language or software platform one edition of which is specifically for smart cards.

Javacard

A card that supports a cut down version of the Java language, and allows java based applications to be run on the card.

MFOS

Ecebs own Multi Function Operating System, an economic alternative for a secure system that deals with most requirements. Useful where a fast but secure performance is required.

Microprocessor

A chip that serves as the central processing unit in a device, in a smart card this is combined with memory, power control and other functions on the smart card chip.

MIFARE

Proprietary smart cards developed by NXP most commonly found in transport applications.

Multefile™

Multefile is Ecebs multi-application smart card enabling technology that enabled smart cards to be updated post-issuance in a highly secure manner.

MULTOS

A mutli-application smart card operating system. An open standard overseen by the MULTOS Consortium.

NEC (National Entitlement Card)

A multi-application smart card scheme run throughout Scotland. It provides free bus travel to eligible residents, cashless catering in schools, discounts and proof of age.

NFC

Near field communication : is close range communication between NFC devices that can be used for payment, ticketing, secure entry and more.

Open loop payment

Open loop payment cards allow the card holder to use their card for payment or withdraw cash wherever the card is accepted. Typically EMV which stands for Europay, MasterCard and Visa.

HOPs

The Host Operator Processor System responsible for processing all transactions and managing ITSO ISAMs

Personalisation

When a smart card is modified to contain the user’s information

PKI

Public Key infrastructure, the hardware, software, organisation, techniques, practices, and procedures that collectively support the implementation and operation of a certificate-based public key cryptographic system.

POS Terminal / device (Point-of-sale)

Hardware or software used to capture purchase transactions at the point they occur. The transaction may be validated instantly via communications link to a financial institution network or may be recorded against a stored value card.

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification: Technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag (RFID Tag) through a reader; it is usually used for identifying and tracking objects.

RTD

Ecebs brand name for its ITSO part 11 solution. RTD enables the purchase and delivery over the internet of ITSO smart tickets and pay-as-you-go top ups, via an NFC device, smart card, pc, or any integrated online system such as a kiosk or handheld POS terminal.

RTDS (See also ISAS)

ISAS is an acronym for ITSO Sam Array System. Rambus ITSO Part 11 solution (branded RTD)  incorporates an ITSO SAM Array System in the ‘back office’. Traditionally ISAMs are stored locally in kiosks or ticket vending machines and this means that 1 ISAM is required for every physical machine. Rambus invented Part 11 to  create a virtual bank of ISAMs that could be used efficiently by connecting over the internet to existing terminal estates and thus reducing the timescales and costs of expanding smart ticketing deployments. Rambus invented the unique (patent pending) SAM management software which manages the ITSO SAM Array System and provides the most efficient method of managing transactions through remote ISAMs.

SAM

Secure Authentication Module. A SAM is a smart card in a reduced form factor and is usually used in point of sale terminal units, they hold cryptographic keys.

Stored travel rights (STR)

Cash paid on to a smart card which is then used for transport transactions as and when they are carried out.

TSM – Trusted Service Manager

A TSM includes not only the delivery of applications to mobile devices but also the management of large amounts of secure data and complex inter-related lifecycles of devices, the applications they carry and in the case of secure applications, the associated keys.It acts as a neutral broker that sets up business agreements and technical connections with mobile network operators, phone manufacturers or other entities controlling the secure element on mobile phones. The trusted service manager enables service providers to distribute and manage their contactless applications remotely by allowing access to the secure element in NFC-enabled handsets.